Our aim is to further characterise the molecular basis for the autoimmune inflammatory disease type 1 diabetes. We have used an integrated combination of genetics in large collections of type 1 diabetic families and case/control, statistics, genome informatics and data mining, gene expression and immunological studies. We have correlated susceptibility genotypes with biomarkers and phenotypes and in particular we have associated flow cytometric phenotypes of T lymphocytes with disease-predisposing genotypes of the IL-2RA (CD25+) gene. This is a first step towards identifying disease precursors and biomarkers that can be used in therapeutic studies. To achieve this we have helped build a local biobank of volunteers and type 1 diabetes patients in whom we can study the effects of disease-associated genotypes and environmental factors (Cambridge BioResource: www.cambridgebioresource.org.uk). These immunology studies have underpinned the next major phase of our research: undertaking clinical studies with novel clinical trial design in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our initial clinical trials will be to assess the effects and mechanisms of ultra-low dose IL-2 on the immune system, with a focus on CD25+ T regulatory cell phenotypes (http://www.clinical-trials-type1-diabetes.com). Our research efforts are part of the JDRF/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory (DIL), which has three other group leaders, John Todd (Director) Linda Wicker (Co-director, DIL), and Chris Wallace (Head of Statistics group).