Background: Eranthemum Roseum is found in tropical and subtropical parts of Asia. This plant is native to India and used in traditional medicine against diabetes but no detail studies were reported on its antidiabetic activity.
Objectives: To study the effect of the saponin fraction of Eranthemum roseum (SFER) on elevated blood glucose level along with other biochemical parameters and on oxidative stress generated due to diabetes.
Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The diabetic rats were then orally treated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day), SFER (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg/day) respectively. The blood glucose level, lipid profile, hepatoprotective biomarkers like AST and ALT, food intake, urine output and body weight were evaluated at different time intervals during the course of study. The renal lipid peroxidation was estimated for antioxidant activity. The contents of different known steroidal saponins in the plant were determined simultaneously using HPLC analysis.
Results: HPLC analysis of SFER reveals the presence of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and lupeol. Oral administrationofSFER for 21 days significantly decreased (p<0.01) the elevated blood glucose level. SFER reversed the body weight loss and abnormal changes in the lipid profile associated with diabetic conditions. Upon administration of SFER 120 mg/kg to diabetic animals serum AST, ALT levels on day 21 were significantly reduced as compared to diabetic control animals (p<0.01). The elevated renal lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) by the SFER treatment.
Conclusion: These results suggest that SFER have antidiabetic and antioxidant activities which may be attributed to steroidal saponins being the major phytoconstituents of SFER.