Background: The small regulatory microRNAs (miRNA) provide regulation of protein synthesis . By binding to mRNA strands, they inhibit translation reversibly or irreversibly, thus deciding whether translation will occur or not. The role of miRNA in type 1 diabetes has only recently begun to be investigated. The high stability of miRNA in cell-free body fluids makes them interesting as potential biomarkers of disease . Aim: To explore differences in serum miRNA profiles between children with high risk for type 1 diabetes, healthy children and children with type 1 diabetes. Materials and methods: miRNA profiles were assessed in serum from high risk individuals (n=21, positive for multiple diabetes-related autoantibodies), age-matched healthy controls (n=16) and age-matched children with recent onset type 1 diabetes (one month post onset, n=8), by relative quantification using real-time PCR. Exiqon´s miRCURY LNA™ Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR Panels were used, containing specific locked nucleic acid (LNA)-enhanced primers for 179 miRNAs commonly found in serum/plasma. Results: Serum samples from 18 individuals (9 high risk individuals and 9 healthy controls) have been analyzed so far. Out of the 179 miRNAs assessed, 166 were expressed in a majority of the samples and hence included in subsequent analyses. Preliminary data analysis indicated that miRNA profiles differ between high risk individuals and healthy controls. Twenty miRNAs were up- or down regulated with a fold change >2 in high risk children compared to healthy controls. Among the most differently expressed were hsa-miR-136-5p, hsa-miR-382-5p and hsa-miR-141-3p (all downregulated), hsa-miR-223-5p and hsa-miR-338-3p (both upregulated). Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that serum miRNA profiling might be able to identify individuals with high risk for type 1 diabetes, but further investigation is needed to corroborate our findings.